Example Table

Example Table
An example Beach Nourishment table for North Topsail Island

Explanation of Beach Nourishment Episode Attributes (Column Headers)

Episode: A nourishment episode is a discrete instance of sand being emplaced on a beach. A nourishment project can span multiple years and include multiple nourishment episodes.

Length: The linear distance of shoreline upon which sediment has been emplaced, measured in feet.

Volume: Volume is the quantity of sand emplaced on a beach during a beach nourishment episode measured in cubic yards.

Location: A beach, park, island, community or other commonly-recognized jurisdictional designation encompassing and identifying the geographic boundary and/or extent of shoreline upon which sediment has been emplaced.

Year Completed: The year in which a nourishment episode was completed. Beach nourishment typically commences in the late fall/early winter due to environmental and ecological concerns. As a result, nourishment episodes usually begin at the end of the year and wrap-up early the next year.

Nominal Cost: The cost (amount spent) on a beach nourishment episode in the year the episode was completed, measured in US dollars.

2016 Real Cost: The nominal cost of a beach nourishment episode adjusted for inflation using the most recent US Consumer Price Index, measured in US dollars.

Primary Funding Source

The public or private entity providing the majority of the funding for a nourishment episode. These include:

  • County: Tax dollars spent by the largest administrative division of a U.S. state with representatives elected by those who live there.
  • Federal: Tax dollars spent by the US Army Corps of Engineers or FEMA.
  • Local: Tax dollars spent by the administration of a particular town or district with representatives elected by those who live there.
  • Private: Funds provided by a non-governmental entity having no official or public role or position.
  • State: Funds provided by members or representatives of a unit of government that specifically makes and enforces laws for a state.


The primary reason why a beach was nourished. These include:

  • Bypass: Artificially moving sand from an updrift beach to a downdrift beach in order to bypass a natural or artificial obstruction such as an inlet or jetty.
  • Coastal Impact Assistance Program: Federal grant funds derived from federal offshore lease revenues to the oil-producing states of Alabama, Alaska, California, Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas for conservation, protection, or restoration of coastal areas.
  • Demonstration: A US Army Corps of Engineers experimental effort that places sand in an offshore location, rather than directly on a beach.
  • Ecosystem Restoration: An effort to reestablish or improve coastal habitat that has been degraded or damaged by natural or human activities.
  • Emergency: Designed to create an artificial beach berm in order to provide a minimum level of protection to vulnerable coastal development, usually post-storm. All Federal nourishment episodes classified as Emergency are funded through FEMA or the US Army Corps of Engineers.
  • Emergency Dune: Designed to construct an artificial dune in order to provide a minimum level of protection to vulnerable coastal development, usually post-storm.
  • Navigation: Sediment (known as dredge spoil) resulting from a navigation-related dredging effort is placed on a beach rather than dumped offshore or in an upland location
  • Section 111: Mitigation of shoreline damages attributable to Federal navigation structures (jetties).
  • Shore Protection: Nourishment episodes undertaken for the primary purpose of reducing storm-related damage to static human economic development placed behind dynamic shorelines.